samvidhan kya hai?
samvidhan, hindi संविधान, meaning “constitution” is the supreme law of the Republic of India. It lays down the framework defining the fundamental political principles, establishes the structure, procedures, powers and duties of government institutions and sets out the rights and duties of citizens. It is the longest written constitution of any country in the world.
The samvidhan was drafted by the Constituent Assembly, elected by the people of India in 1946, and it came into effect on 26 January 1950. The Assembly had a total of 379 members, out of which 294 were elected and 85 were appointed. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, chairman of the Drafting Committee, was the principal architect of the Constitution.
The Constitution has been amended over 100 times, most recently in 2016. The Constitution is the basis for the law of the land in India and any law passed by the Parliament must be consistent with it.
The Constitution is a living document, which means that it can be amended to reflect the changing needs of the people of India. The Constitution has been amended to expand the rights of citizens, to abolish the untouchability system, to provide for reservation of seats for Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Classes in Parliament and State legislatures, and to protect the rights of women and children.
The Constitution is also a federal Constitution, which means that it divides power between the Central government and the State governments. The Central government is responsible for matters of national importance, such as defence, foreign affairs and currency, while the State governments are responsible for matters of local importance, such as education, health and agriculture.